Like an onion, there are many layers to HIV-related stigma.
Stigma can be internalized, directed at oneself, or it can manifest outwards. Like an interstate, stigma can also move in both directions at the same time. Consequences of stigma can impact a person, a relationship, or a community. Like an elevator, stigma can move up and down the age scale. The impact of stigma can have physical, emotional, and social effects on both HIV- and HIV+ men.
It seems to me there is